Article Index

Bhagavad Gita: Chapters 6 - 10

Chapter 6: Yoga of Meditation

The Lord said. One who performs the prescribed duty without seeing its fruit is a Sanyasi and a yogi, not the one who merely does not light the sacred fire, and does not work. (6.01) 102

O Arjuna, know that to be yoga which they call Sanyasa. No one becomes a yogi who has not renounced the selfish motive behind an action.(6.02)103

For the wise who seeks to attain yoga (of meditation or the equanimity of mind), Karma-yoga is said to be the way; for the one who has attained yoga, the equanimity which is gained becomes the Way. (6.03)

A person is said to have attained yogic perfection when there is no desire for sensual pleasures or attachment to the fruits of work, and has renounced all personal selfish motives. (6.04)

One must elevate, not degrade oneself by one’s own  soul. The soul alone is one’s friend as well as one’s enemy. (6.05) 104

The soul is the friend of those who have control over it, and the soul acts like an enemy for those who do not control it.(6.06)

One who has control over the soul is tranquil in heat and cold, in pleasure and pain, and in honour and dishonour; and is ever steadfast with the Supreme Spirit. (6.07)

A yogi is called Spirit-realized who is satisfied with knowledge and understanding of the Spirit, who is equanimous, who has control over the senses (including mind as 6th sense), and to whom a clod, a stone, and gold are the same. (6.08)

A person is considered superior who is impartial towards companions, friends, enemies, neutrals, arbiters, haters, relatives, saints, and sinners. (6.09)105

Meditation instruction

Let the yogi - seated in solitude and alone - having mind and senses under control and free from desires and attachments for possessions, try constantly to contemplate on the Supreme Spirit. (6.10) 106

The yogi should sit on a firm seat that is neither too high nor too low, covered with kusha grass, a deerskin, and a cloth, one over the other, in a clean spot. (6.11) 107

Sitting (in a comfortable position) and concentrating the mind on a single object, controlling the thought and the activities of the senses,let the yogi practice meditation for self-purification.(6.12)

Hold the waist, spine, chest, neck, and head erect, motionless and steady, fix the eyes and the mind steadily at the tip of the nose, and do not look around.(6.13)108

With serene and fearless mind; practising celibacy; having the mind under control and thinking of Me; let the yogi sit and have Me as the supreme goal. (6.14) 109

Thus, by always keeping the mind fixed on the Spirit, the yogi whose mind is subdued attains peace of the divine ecstasy by uniting with Me. (6.15)

This yoga is not possible, O Arjuna, for the one who eats too much, or who does not eat at all; who sleeps too much, or who keeps awake. (6.16)

But for the one who is moderate in eating, recreation, working, sleeping, and waking, this yoga (of meditation) destroys (all) sorrow. (6.17)

A person is said to have achieved yoga, the union with the Spirit, when the disciplined mind gets freedom from all desires, and becomes absorbed in the Spirit alone. (6.18)

’As a Lamp in a windless place does not flicker’ - this simile is used for the subdued mind of a yogi practising meditation on God. (6.19)

When the mind disciplined by the practice of meditation becomes steady,one becomes content in the spirit by beholding the Spirit with (purified) intellect. (6.20) 110

One feels infinite bliss that is perceivable only through the intellect, and is beyond the reach of the senses. After realizing God, one is never separated from absolute reality. (6.21)

After Spirit-realisation, one does not regard any other gain superior to Spirit-realisation. Established in Spirit-realisation, one is not moved even by the greatest calamity. (6.22) 111

The cutting off of sorrow and unhappiness is known by the name of yoga. This yoga should be practised with firm determination and perseverance, without any mental reservation or doubts. (6.23)

Totally abandoning all selfish desires, and completely restraining the senses by the intellect; (6.24)

one attains tranquillity of mind by gradually bringing the mind back ever time it wanders; fully absorbed in the Spirit by means of a well-trained (heart) intellect, and thinking of nothing else. (6.25)

By whatever cause the restless and unsteady mind wanders away, one should (gently) bring it back to the Lord, the reflection of God. (6.26) 112

Supreme bliss comes to a Spirit-realized yogi whose mind is tranquil, whose desires are under control, and who is free from sin (6.27) 113

Such a sinless yogi, who constantly engages the mind with the Spirit, easily enjoys the infinite bliss of contact with God.(6.28)

Because of perceiving the Spirit abiding in all beings, and all beings abiding in the Spirit; a yogi, who is in union with the Spirit, sees every being with an equal eye. (6.29)114

Those who see Me in everything and see everything in Me, are not separated from Me and I am not separated from them.(6.30) 115

They who see all as one, who adore Me as abiding in all beings, abide in Me irrespective of their mode of living. (6.31) 116

One is considered the best yogi who regards every being like oneself, and who judges pain and pleasures of others by the same standard as applied to one-self, O Arjuna. (6.32) 117

Arjuna is concerned about losing out on the pleasures of both worlds

Arjuna said: O Krishna, You have said that yoga is characterized by equanimity, but because of the restlessness of mind I do not see how the steady state of mind can be achieved. (6.33)

Because the mind, indeed, is very unsteady, turbulent, powerful, and obstinate, O Krishna. I think restraining the mind is as difficult as restraining the wind. (6.34)

The Lord said: Undoubtedly so, O Arjuna, the mind is restless and difficult to restrain, but it is subdued by two ways, perseverance in spiritual discipline, and detachment from this world, O Arjuna. (6.35)

I do concede,yoga is difficult for the one who cannot control the mind. However, yoga is attainable by the person who has disciplined the mind and strives by proper means (6.36)

Arjuna said: For the faithful one who has not yet subdued the mind, and who deviates from yoga - what is the destination of such a person, O Krishna? (6.37)

Do they not perish like a disintegrating cloud, O Krishna, having lost both yoga which bring heavenly pleasures and having renounced worldly pleasures, being bewildered on the Way? (6.38) 118

O Krishna, do take this doubt from me. Because there is none, other than You, who can dispel this doubt. (6.39)119

The Lord said: There is no destruction, O Arjuna, for such a yogi either here or hereafter. The doer of good is not put to grief, My son. (6.40)

The unsuccessful yogi is reborn, after attaining heaven and living there for many years, in the house of the pure and prosperous; or (6.41)

such a yogi is born in a family of wise yogis. A birth like this is very difficult, indeed, to obtain in this world.(6.42)

After taking such a birth, O Arjuna, one regains the knowledge acquired in the previous life, and strives again to achieve perfection. (6.43) 120

The unsuccessful yogi is instinctively carried towards God by virtue of yogic practices of previous lives. Even the one who merely inquires about God through a little yoga, surpasses those who perform religious rituals without understanding. (6.44) 121

The yogi who diligently strives, perfecting (gradually) through many incarnations, becomes completely free from all sins (or imperfections) and reaches the supreme goal (of Spirit-realisation). (6.45)

The yogi is superior to the ascetics. The yogi is superior to the theologians. The yogi is superior to the ritualists. Therefore, O Arjuna, be a yogi. (6.46)

I consider one to be the most devoted of all the yogis, who lovingly contemplates on Me with supreme faith, and who’s mind is ever absorbed in Me. (6 47)122

Chapter 7: Yoga of Spiritual Discernment

The Lord said: O Arjuna, listen how you shall know Me completely without any doubt, with your mind clinging to Me, taking refuge in Me, and performing yogi practices.(7.01)

I shall fully explain to you the art of Spirit-knowledge together with Spirit-realisation. After knowing this nothing more remains to be known in this world. (7.02)

Scarcely one out of thousands of persons strives for perfection of Spirit-realisation. Scarcely any one of those striving, or even the perfected persons, truly knows Me. (7.03)

Mind, intellect, ego, ether, air, fire, water, and earth are the eightfold transformation of My Creative Energy.(7.04)123

This Creative Energy is My lower energy. My other higher energy is the Uncreate Energy by which this entire universe is sustained, O Arjuna.(7.05)124

Know that all creatures have evolved from this twofold energy, and God is the origin as well as the dissolution of the entire universe. (7.06)125

O Arjuna, there is nothing higher than God. Everything in the universe is strung on God like jewels on the thread of a necklace. (7.07)

O Arjuna, being one with God I am the sapidity in the water, I am the radiance in the sun and the moon, the sacred syllable Om in all the Scriptures, the sound in the ether, and the essence in human beings. (7.08)

I am the sweet fragrance in the earth. I am the brilliance in the fire, the life in all living beings, and the humility in the ascetics. (7.09)

O Arjuna, know Me to be the eternal seed of all creatures. I am the intelligence of the intelligent, and the splendour of the splendid. (7.10)126

I am the strength of the strong, that is devoid of lust and attachment. I am the lust (or Desire) in human-beings that is in accord with Dharma, O Arjuna. (7.11) 127

Know that the three Gunas; Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, also emanate from Me. I am not in (or dependent on) the Gunas, but the Gunas are in (or dependent on) Me . (7.12)128

Illusion of the three Gunas

Human beings are deluded by these, the threefold dispositions of Creative Energy - Gunas of nature; therefore, they do not know Me who is above these Gunas and eternal. (7.13)

My divine Illusion consisting of three Gunas is difficult to overcome. Only they who surrender unto Me, and take refuge in me alone, cross over this Illusion. (7.14)129

The evil doers, the ignorant, the lowest persons who are attached to demoniacal nature, and whose intellect has been taken away by Illusion do not seek refuge in Me. (7.15)

<h4>Four Types of Humans

Four types of virtuous ones worship Me, O Arjuna. The one in the distress, the seeker of knowledge, the seeker of wealth, and the wise imbued with Wisdom. (7.16) 130

Among them the wise one, who is ever united with Me and whose devotion is single minded, is the best. Because I am very dear to the wise, and the wise is very dear to Me. (7.17)

All these (seekers) are indeed noble, but I regard the wise as My very Spirit, because the one who is steadfast becomes one with the Supreme Being. (7.18)131

More on the yoga of Wisdom

After many births the wise ones surrender to Me by realizing that everything is (a manifestation of) God indeed. Such a great soul is very rare.(7.19)

They, whose wisdom was carried away by various desires impelled by their own lack of discrimination, they resort to other gods (or deities) and practice various religious rites. (7.20)

Whosoever desires to worship whatever deity (using whatever name, form, and method) with faith, I make their faith steady in that very deity. (7.21)

Endowed with steady faith they worship that deity, and fulfill their wishes through that deity. Those wishes are indeed, when noble, granted only by Me. (7.22)

But the fruits gained by these less intelligent human beings are of a temporary nature. The worshippers of gods go to gods, but My devotees come to Me. (7.23) 132

The ignorant think of Me, the Unmanifest, as having a form or personality, not knowing My Supreme state - unspeakable and unsurpassed.(7.24)133

Veiled by My divine Illusion, I am not known by all. Therefore, the ignorant one does not know Me as the Unborn and Eternal God. (7.25)

I know, O Arjuna, the beings of the past, of the present, and those of the future, but no one really knows Me. (7.26)

All beings in this world are in utter ignorance due to the delusion of dualities born of likes and dislikes, O Arjuna. (7.27)

Persons of virtuous (or unselfish) deeds, whose crooked aims have come to an end, become free from the delusion of dualities and worship Me with firm resolve. (7.28)

Those who strive for freedom from (the cycles of birth) old age and death by taking refuge in Me, they realize and come to know God, the individual spirit, and all karma in its entirety. (7.29)

The steadfast persons, who know that God is everything, the Adhibhota, the Adhidaiva, and the Adhiyajna, remember Me even at the time of death (and attain Me). (7.30) 134

 

Chapter 8: The Mystery of Omnipresence

Arjuna said.. O Krishna, what is the Universal Life? What is that which we call Spirit-consciousness? What is the essential nature of Action? What is the constitution of the Universal Principles? And what is known as the Arch-angelic hosts, higher by far than humankind? (8.01)

O Krishna, who is Wisdom, and how does She dwell in the body? How can You be remembered at the time of death by the steadfast? (8.02)

The Lord said: God is the All from which all proceeds. From Me flows out the Spirit of Spirits - the Universal Life - the One Life of the Universe. Cause & effect, the essence of Action, is that principle of my emanation which cause things to live, and move and act. (8.03)

The Universal Principles, in their inner constitution, are but my Will manifested in the Natural laws of the universe. The knowledge of the Arch-angelic hosts is the knowledge of the Soul. The secret of My appearance in the flesh, belongs to those who are able to understand the higher teachings, and is closely woven in with the Law of Sacrifice (Yajna). (8.04)

At the hour of death, the wise one, with mind fixed upon me, comes straight to Me, without a doubt. But the one who fixed their desire on something else - if there be to that one a greater god, material or otherwise, than Me - to that god of materiality, or super-materiality, goes that one. Each goes to that which is their ruling passion, even at the hour of death - so then, fight the fight that lies before you. (8.05-6)

Therefore, with your mind and understanding firmly fixed upon Me, certainly you will come to Me. To the Spirit goes the one, who, setting aside all desire, lives the life of the Spirit by constant Right Thinking and Right Action; to the Spirit goes the one who is of the Spirit.(8.07-8)

How the yogi gives up the body

Meditating on God as the Omniscient, the Oldest, the Ruler, smaller than the smallest and bigger than the biggest, the Sustainer of everything, the Inconceivable, the Spirit luminous like the sun, and as Transcendental; (8.09)

at the time of death with steadfast mind and devotion, making the flow of Wisdom force rise up by the power of yoga and holding it there; then the body is given up and the spirit flows into the Divine Spirit. (8.10) 135

I shall briefly explain to you the process to attain that goal which the knowers of Scripture call the Imperishable; into which the ascetics, freed from attachment, enter; and desiring which, they lead a life of celibacy. (8.11)

Controlling all the (nine) door’s of the body, the abode of consciousness; focussing the mind on the heart and Wisdom force in the cerebrum, and engaged in firm yoga, meditating on God and uttering Aum; the one leaving the body in this state attains the supreme goal.(8.12-13)

I am easily attainable, O Arjuna, by that ever steadfast yogi who always thinks of Me and whose mind does not wander.
(8.14)

After attaining Me the great souls do not incur rebirth, which is impermanent and the home of misery, because they have attained the highest perfection. (8.15)

Immortality, rebirth and annihilation

The dwellers of all the worlds including the world of the Creator, are subject to repeated birth and death but, after attaining Me, O Arjuna, one does not take birth again. (See also 9.25) (8.16)

Those who know that the day of the Creator lasts one thousand Yugas and that his night also lasts one thousand Yugas, they are the knowers of day and night. (8.17)136

At the coming of day all manifest beings proceed from the unmanifest, and at the coming of night they merge again in the same which is called the unmanifest.(8.18)

The same multitude of beings come into existence again and again at the arrival of the day of the Creator, and they are annihilated and merged, inevitably, at the arrival of the Creator’s night. (8.19)

On Immortality and how to gain it

There is another eternal unmanifest state higher than both Uncreate Energy and Creative Energy that does not perish when all beings perish. (8.20) 137

This unmanifest state is called the Imperishable or God. This is said to be the Ultimate Goal. Those who reach My Supreme abode do not return (or take rebirth). (8.21)

This Supreme abode, O Arjuna, is attainable by unswerving devotion to Me within which all beings exist, and by which all this universe is pervaded. (8.22) 138

O Arjuna, now I shall describe different paths departing by which, during death, the yogis do or do not come back. (8.23)

Fire, light, daytime, the bright lunar fortnight, and the six months of the northern solstice of the sun; departing by the path of these gods the yogis, who know God, attain ecstasy. (8.24) 139

Smoke, night, the dark lunar fortnight, and the six months of southern solstice of the sun; departing by these paths, the righteous person attains lunar light (or heaven) and reincarnates. (8.25)

The path of light and the path of darkness (of materialism and ignorance) are thought to be the world’s two eternal paths. The former leads to nirvana and the latter leads to rebirth. (8.26)

Knowing these two paths, O Arjuna, a yogi is not bewildered at all. Therefore, O Arjuna, be steadfast in yoga at all times. (8.27)

The yogi who knows all this goes beyond getting the benefits of the study of the Scriptures, performance of sacrifices, austerities, and charities, and attains the Supreme eternal abode. (8.28)

Chapter 9: Kingly Knowledge and the Mystery of Mysteries

The Lord said: I shall reveal to you, who do not disbelieve, the most profound secret of Spirit-knowledge and Spirit-realisation. Knowing this you will be freed from evil. (9.01)

This knowledge is the king of all knowledge, it is the most mysterious, is very sacred, it can be perceived by instinct, it conforms to Law, is very easy to practice and is imperishable. (9.02)

O Arjuna, those who have no faith in this law follow the cycle of birth and death without attaining Me. (9.03)

This entire universe is pervaded by Me, the unmanifest God. All beings depend on and remain, in Me. I do not depend on or remain in them. (9.04) 140

And yet beings, in reality, do not remain in Me. Look at the power of My divine mystery. Though the sustainer and creator of all beings, My Spirit does not remain in them. (9.05) 141

As the mighty wind moving everywhere ever rests in the Universal Space – so do all manifested things rest in Me, the Unmanifest.(9.06)

All beings merge into My Creative Energy at the end of a Kalpa (or a cycle of 4.32 billion years), O Arjuna, and I create (or manifest) beings again at the beginning of the next Kalpa. (9.07)

Using My Creative Energy I create, again and again, the entire multitude of beings that are helpless, being under the control (of the Gunas of) Creative Energy. (9.08)

These acts of creation do not bind Me, O Arjuna, because I remain indifferent and unattached to those acts. (9.09)

The Creative Energy or nature, under My supervision, creates all animate and inanimate objects; and thus the creation keep on going, O Arjuna. (9.10)142

The ignorant of this Truth

The ignorant ones, not knowing My supreme energies or my true nature as Lord of All, disregard Me when I assume human form. (9.11)

Ignorant persons cling to false hopes, false actions, and false knowledge; living in the lower planes of their being, they remain delusive and produce qualities of egocentric pretenders and demons as their highest mastery. (9.12) 143

But great souls, O Arjuna, who partake in divine nature, worship Me with a single mind, knowing Me as the immutable and source of all (9.13)

Glorifying Me always striving, firm in their vows, they prostrate before Me and worship Me devotedly, ever steadfast (9.14)

Some sacrifice with knowledge-Sacrifice. Others worship God in various ways as infinite as the one in all, as the master of all, and in various other ways. (9.15) 144

I am in the Ritual, I am in the Sacrifice, I am in the medicinal herb, I am in the thought and sound of the Mantra, I am in the clarified butter, I am in the fire, I am the homage. (See also 4.24) (9.16) 145

I am the supporter of the universe, the Father, the Mother, and if you want even the Grandfather. I am the knowable, the purifier, the sacred syllable Aum, and also the Holy Scriptures. (9.17)

I am the Goal, the Supporter, the Lord, the Witness, the Abode, the Shelter, the Friend, the Origin, the Dissolution, the Foundation, the Treasure house and the imperishable seed. (See also 7.10 and 10.39} (9.18)

I give heat, I send as well as withhold the rain, I am immortality as well as death, I am being as well as non-being, O Arjuna. (9.19)146

The knowers of the Scriptures and the drinkers of the Soma (mystic meal), whose sins are cleansed, worship Me by Service praying for the way to heaven. As a result of their good Cause & Effect they go to that heaven where celestial beings abide and enjoy celestial sense pleasures. (9.20)

Having enjoyed the wide world of heavenly sense pleasures they return to the mortal world upon exhaustion of their good Cause & Effect. Thus following the decree of the Scriptures, those desiring things, they come and go between the worlds. (9.21) 147

To those ever steadfast devotees, with single-minded contemplation on Me, I take responsibility for their gains and I see to their welfare and security. (9.22) 148

O Arjuna, even those devotees who worship demigods with faith, they too worship Me, but in an improper way. (9.23)

I am truly the enjoyer of all Selfless Service and I am its Lord. But these people do not know My true nature, and then they fall (into the repeated cycles of birth and death). (9.24)

Those professing the demigods go to the demigods, the worshippers of the ancestors go to the ancestors, and the worshippers of the ghosts go to the ghosts, but My devotees come to Me and are not born again. (9.25)149

Whosoever offers Me a leaf, a flower, a fruit, or water with devotion; I accept and eat the offering of devotion by the pure-hearted. (9.26) 150

O Arjuna, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer as sacrifice to the sacred fire, whatever charity you give, whatever humility you perform, do all that as an offering unto Me. (9.27) 151

By this attitude of complete renunciation you shall be freed from the bondage, good and bad, of Cause & Effect. You shall be liberated, and come to Me. (9.28) 152

The Spirit is present equally in all beings.There is no one hateful or dear to Me. But, those who worship Me with devotion, they are with Me and I am also with them. (9.29)153

Even if the most sinful person resolves to worship Me with single-minded loving devotion, such a person must be regarded as a saint because of making the right resolution. (9.30)

Such a person soon becomes righteous and attains everlasting peace. Be aware, O Arjuna, that My devotee never falls dawn. (9.31)

Anybody, including women, merchants, labourers, and the evil-minded can attain the supreme goal by just surrendering unto My will (with loving devotion), O Arjuna.(9 32)154

Then, it should be very easy for the holy Priests and higher castes and devout royal sages to attain the Supreme state! Therefore having obtained this joyless and transient human life, one should worship Me and be elevated from here. (9.33)

Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and bow down to Me. Thus uniting yourself with Me, and setting Me as the supreme goal and sole refuge, you shall certainly realise or (come to) Me. (9.34)

Chapter 10: Manifestation of the Absolute

The Lord said: O Arjuna, listen once again to My supreme word that I shall speak to you. Desiring to benefit you Arjuna, I whish to speak for your ecstasy. (10.01)

Neither the Angels and heavenly powers nor the great sages know My origin, because I am the origin of all angels and powers and sages also. (10.02)

One who knows Me as the unborn, the beginningless, and the Lord of the universe, is considered wise among the mortals, and gets liberation from bondage of improper aims. (10.03)

Intellect, wisdom, non-delusion, patience, truth, self-restraint, calmness, pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear, fearlessness; (10.04).

non-violence, equanimity, contentment, humility, charity, fame, and ill fame; all these diverse qualities in human beings arise from Me alone. (10.05)

The seven great Sages and the four ancient beings, from whom all these creatures of the world were born, originated from My potential energy. (10.06)

One who truly understands My manifestations and powers, is united with Me in unswerving yoga. There is no doubt about this. (10.07)

I am the origin of all. Everything emanates from Me. Understanding this, the wise ones worship Me with all their heart. (10.08)

With their minds fixed on Me, with their lives surrendered unto Me, always enlightening each other by talking about Me; they remain ever content and delighted. (10.09)

Buddhi Yoga

To them, ever devout, worshipping Me with love, I give the yoga of discrimination by which they come to Me. (10.10) 155

Out of compassion for them I, who dwell within their heart, destroy the darkness born of ignorance by the shining lamp of Wisdom. (10.11) 156

All mythology of ages point also to God’s energies

Arjuna said: You are the Supreme God, the supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier, the Eternal Divine Spirit, the primal God, the Unborn, the Omnipresent. (10.12)

All sages in all Scriptures over the ages have thus acclaimed You, and now You Yourself tell me. (10.13)

O Lord, I believe all that You have told Me to be true. O Lord, neither the heavenly creatures or the demons fully understand Your manifestations. (10.14)157

O Creator and Lord of all beings, God of all gods, Supreme person and Lord of the universes, You alone know Yourself by Yourself. (10.15)

You alone are able to fully describe Your own divine glories, the manifestations by which You exist pervading all the universe, if you will. (10.16)

How may I know You, O Lord, by constant contemplation? In what forms are You to be thought of by me, O Lord? (10.17)

O Lord, explain to me again in detail, Your yogic power and glory; because, I am not satiated by hearing Your nectar-like words. (10.18)

The Lord said: O Arjuna, now I shall explain to you My divine manifestations according to their prominence, but there is however no end to My manifestations. (10.19)

O Arjuna, I am the spirit abiding in the heart of all beings. I am also the beginning, the middle, and the end of all beings. (10.20)

Of the twelve months I am January which dispels the winter; I am the radiant sun among the luminaries, I am the Fertile wind among the winds, I am the moon among the asterisms. (10.21)

I am the Psalms and Chants among the Scriptures, I am Indra among the deities; I am the mind among the senses; I am the consciousness in living beings. (10.22)

I am Shiva among the crying inducing Rudra; I am the Lord of wealth among the demons; I am fire among the elements; and I am the conscious axis of the world among the mountain peaks. (10.23)

Among the priests, O Arjuna, know Me to be the priest of the deities. Among the army generals, I am Skanda, the general over the celestial army; I am the ocean among the bodies of water. (10.24)

Of the sages I am the ever super-conscious one; I am the monosyllable AUM among the words; I am japa-yajna (constant prayer) among Service; and I am the Himalaya among the immovables. (10.25)

I am the holy fig tree, peepul, among the trees, I am the singer of the name of God and bringer of blessings in strife among the celestial sages, Chitraratha, overlord of celestial passion am I, and sage KapiIa who authored Samkya Yoga am I. (10.26)

Know Me as the mythological Uchchaihshrava, born at the time of churning the ocean for getting the nectar, among the horses; Airaavata among the elephants; and the King among men, who all work the universes to obtain happiness. (10.27) 158

I am thunderbolt among the weapons, Kamadhuk among cows, and the Cupid among the procreators. Among the serpents, I am Vasuki. (10.28) 159

I am Anantha among the Nagas, I am Varuna among the water deities, and Adam among the first incomers. I am Yama among the controllers. (10.29) 160

I am Prahlada among Daityas, Time among the healing reckoners, Lion among the beasts, and the lord of birds. (10.30) 161

I am the wind among the purifiers, and Lord Rama among the warriors. I am the shark among the fishes, and the Ganges among the rivers. (10.31)

I am the beginning, the middle, and the end of the creation, O Arjuna. Among the sciences I am the science of the spirit. I am reason of the debater. (10.32) 162

I am the letter “A” among the alphabets, among the compound words I am the dual compound, I am the endless time, I am the sustainer of all, and I am omniscient. (10.33)

I am the all-devouring death, and also the origin of future beings. Among the feminine nouns I am fame, prosperity, speech, memory, intellect, resolve, and forgiveness. (10.34)

I am Brihat-sama among the hymns. I am Gayatri among the mantras, I am November-December among the months, I am the spring among the seasons. (10.35)163

I am the gambling of the fraudulent; I am the splendour of the splendid; I am victory of the victorious; I am resolution of the resolute; I am the goodness of the good. (10.36)

I am Vasudeva among the Vrishni, Arjuna among the Pandavas, Vyasa among the sages, and Ushanda among the poets. (10.37) 164

I am the power of rulers, the statesmanship of the seekers of victory, I am silence among the secrets, and Wisdom in the wise. (10.38)

I am the origin or seed of all beings, O Arjuna. There is nothing, animate or inanimate, that can exist without Me. (10.39)165

There is no end of My divine manifestations, O Arjuna. This is only a brief description by Me of the extent of My divine manifestations. (10.40)

Whatever is endowed with glory, brilliance, and power know that to be a manifestation of a fraction of My splendour. (10.41)

What is the need for this detailed knowledge, O Arjuna? I continually support the entire universe by a small fraction of My energy. (10.42)